Hypertension

Hypertension or High Blood Pressure sometimes called Arterial is a chronic medical conditions in which the blood pressure in arteries is elevated, blood pressure is summarized by two measurements, Systolic and Diastolic which depends on whether the Heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relax between beats (Diastole) this equal to a maximum and minimum pressure respectively.

Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100 to 140mmHg systolic (Top reading) and 60 to 90mmHg Diastolic (Bottom reading).

High Blood Pressure is when its above 140/90mmHg at separate interval on two or more independent measurements.

Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension. About 90 to 95% of cases are categorized as primary hypertension which has no obvious underlying medical cause. Secondary hypertension is cause by condition that affect the Kidneys, Arteries, Heart or Endocrine systems.

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Anaemia

What is Anaemia?

This is when you have fewer red blood cells than normal, OR you have less haemoglobin than normal in each red blood cell. In either case, the amount of oxygen  that is carried around  in the blood is reduced.

Red Blood Cells

Blood is made up of  three types of blood cells: Red blood cells  which take oxygen around the body, White blood cells which are part of the immune system, and defend the body from  infection and  Platelets which help the blood to clot if we have a cut . These cells are contained in a fluid called plasma.


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Diabetes Mellitus

DM is a group of metabolic diseases in which there is high blood sugar levels over a prolong period of time. Its symptoms are frequent urination, Increase thirst, Increase hunger if left untreated, diabetes can cause complications.

Acute complication include diabetes Ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia  hyper-osmolar coma. Serious long term complication include: Cardiovascular disease, Stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers, blindness.

There 4 main types of diabetes mellitus.

Type 1 DM (Formerly called Juvenile onset or Insulin dependent diabetes). The cause is unknown.

Type 2 DM (Formerly called Adult onset or non-insulin dependent. It is associated with insulin resistance and insufficient insulin production.  One of the associated cause is excessive body weight with genetic determinant that reflect diet.

Gestational DM: It occurs in pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes who develop high sugar level during pregnancy.

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